1. What is DBMS ?
The database management system is a collection of programs
that enables user to store, retrieve, update and delete information from a
2. What is RDBMS ?
Relational Database Management system (RDBMS) is a database
management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. Data from
relational database can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways
without having to reorganize the database tables. Data from relational database
can be accessed using an API , Structured Query Language (SQL).
3. What is SQL ?
Structured Query Language(SQL) is a language designed
specifically for communicating with databases. SQL is an ANSI (American
National Standards Institute) standard.
4. What are the different type of SQL's statements ?
This is one of the frequently asked SQL Interview Questions
to freshers. SQL statements are broadly classified into three. They are:
1. DDL – Data Definition Language
DDL is used to define the structure that holds the data. For
example, Create, Alter, Drop and Truncate table.
2. DML– Data Manipulation Language
DML is used for manipulation of the data itself. Typical
operations are Insert, Delete, Update and retrieving the data from the table.
Select statement is considered as a limited version of DML, since it can't
change data in the database. But it can perform operations on data retrieved
from DBMS, before the results are returned to the calling function.
3. DCL– Data Control Language
DCL is used to control the visibility of data like granting
database access and set privileges to create tables etc. Example - Grant,
Revoke access permission to the user to access data in database.
5. What are the Advantages of SQL ?
1. SQL is not a proprietary language used by specific
database vendors. Almost every major DBMS supports SQL, so learning this one
language will enable programmers to interact with any database like ORACLE, SQL
2. SQL is easy to learn. The statements are all made up of
descriptive English words, and there aren't that many of them.
3. SQL is actually a very powerful language and by using its
language elements you can perform very complex and sophisticated database
6. what is a field in a database ?
A field is an area within a record reserved for a specific
piece of data.
Examples: Employee Name, Employee ID etc
7. What is a Record in a database ?
A record is the collection of values / fields of a specific
entity: i.e. an Employee, Salary etc.
8. What is a Table in a database ?
A table is a collection of records of a specific type. For
example, employee table, salary table etc.
9. What is a database transaction?
Database transaction takes database from one consistent
state to another. At the end of the transaction the system must be in the prior
state if the transaction fails or the status of the system should reflect the
successful completion if the transaction goes through.
10. What are properties of a transaction?
Properties of the transaction can be
summarized as ACID Properties.
A transaction consists of many steps. When all the steps in
a transaction gets completed, it will get reflected in DB or if any step fails,
all the transactions are rolled back.
The database will move from one consistent state to another,
if the transaction succeeds and remain in the original state, if the
Every transaction should operate as if it is the only
transaction in the system.
Once a transaction has completed successfully, the updated
rows/records must be available for all other transactions on a permanent basis.
11. What is a Database Lock ?
Database lock tells a transaction, if the data item in
questions is currently being used by other transactions.
12. What are the type of locks ?
1. Shared Lock
When a shared lock is applied on data item, other
transactions can only read the item, but can't write into it.
2. Exclusive Lock
When an exclusive lock is applied on data item, other
transactions can't read or write into the data item.
13. What are the different types of normalization?
In database design, we start with one single table, with all
possible columns. A lot of redundant data would be present since it’s a single
table. The process of removing the redundant data, by splitting up the table in
a well defined fashion is called normalization.
1. First Normal Form (1NF)
A relation is said to be in first normal form if and only if
all underlying domains contain atomic values only. After 1NF, we can still have
2. Second Normal Form (2NF)
A relation is said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF
and every non key attribute is fully dependent on the primary key. After 2NF,
we can still have redundant data.
3. Third Normal Form (3NF)
A relation is said to be in 3NF, if and only if it is in 2NF
and every non key attribute is non-transitively dependent on the primary key.
14. What is a primary key?
A primary key is a column whose values uniquely identify
every row in a table. Primary key values can never be reused. If a row is
deleted from the table, its primary key may not be assigned to any new rows in
the future. To define a field as primary key, following conditions had to be
1. No two rows can have the same primary key value.
2. Every row must have a primary key value
3. The primary key field cannot be null
4. Values in primary key columns can never be modified or
15. What is a Composite Key ?
A Composite primary key is a type of candidate key, which
represents a set of columns whose values uniquely identify every row in a
For example - if
"Employee_ID" and "Employee Name" in a table is combined to
uniquely identify a row its called a Composite Key.
16. What is a Composite Primary Key ?
A Composite primary key is a set of columns whose values
uniquely identify every row in a table. What it means is that, a table which
contains composite primary key will be indexed based on the columns specified
in the primary key. This key will be referred in Foreign Key tables.
For example - if the combined effect of columns,
"Employee_ID" and "Employee Name" in a table is required to
uniquely identify a row, its called a Composite Primary Key. In this case, both
the columns will be represented as primary key.
17. What is a Foreign Key ?
When a "one" table's primary key field is added to
a related "many" table in order to create the common field which
relates the two tables, it is called a foreign key in the "many"
For example, the salary of an employee is stored in salary
table. The relation is established via foreign key column “Employee_ID_Ref”
which refers “Employee_ID” field in the Employee table.
18. What is a Unique Key ?
Unique key is same as primary with the difference being the
existence of null. Unique key field allows one value as NULL value.
19. Define SQL Insert
SQL INSERT statement is used to add rows to a table. For a
full row insert, SQL Query should start with “insert into “ statement followed
by table name and values command, followed by the values that need to be
inserted into the table. The insert can be used in several ways:
1. To insert a single complete row.
2. To insert a single partial row.
20. Define SQL Update Statement ?
SQL Update is used to update data in a row or set of rows
specified in the filter condition.
The basic format of an SQL UPDATE statement is, Update
command followed by table to be updated and SET command followed by column
names and their new values followed by filter condition that determines which
rows should be updated.
21. Define SQL Delete Statement ?
SQL Delete is used to delete a row or set of rows specified
in the filter condition.
The basic format of an SQL DELETE statement is, DELETE FROM
command followed by table name followed by filter condition that determines
which rows should be updated.
22. What are wild cards used in database for Pattern
SQL Like operator is used for pattern matching. SQL 'Like'
command takes more time to process. So before using "like" operator,
consider suggestions given below on when and where to use wild card search.
1) Don't overuse wild cards. If another search operator will
do, use it instead.
2) When you do use wild cards, try not to use them at the
beginning of the search pattern, unless absolutely necessary. Search patterns
that begin with wild cards are the slowest to process.
3) Pay careful attention to the placement of the wild card
symbols. If they are misplaced, you might not return the data you intended.